WIT Press

Linking Relief, Rehabilitation And Development (LRRD): Lessons Learned From The Australian And The Canadian Red Cross Waste Management Program In The Maldives


Free (open access)





Page Range

247 - 257




277 kb

Paper DOI



WIT Press


W. Pramana


In response to the 2004 tsunami, the Australian and the Canadian Red Cross societies, and the Canadian International Development Agency collaborated with the Government of the Maldives (GoM) in the Tsunami Debris and Waste Management Program (2005-2007). It aimed to address relief, recovery and development issues: (a) the widespread and unmanaged waste left by the tsunami and accumulation of household waste, and (b) the lack of sustainable island waste-management practices prior to the tsunami. This paper analyses the approaches used in the program in terms of linking relief, rehabilitation and development (LRRD) and lessons on appropriate approaches to be considered in a context where issues about government versus community responsibility are a critical component. The program demonstrates that it is possible to create changes in community awareness, knowledge and practices on waste management in 74 islands in a short period of time (2005-2007). Additionally, the program became a catalyst for formulation of the government policy on waste management and for establishment of a better accountability mechanism with island communities. It further facilitated waste management communication between island and atoll offices. Based on the good practices and lessons learned from the program, ensuring sustainable changes involves (a) an adequate capacity assessment of the community and local institutions in both the design phase of the community intervention and the exit strategy, (b) integration of a strong and comprehensive community self-reliance intervention in the recovery program, (c) being rigorous


solid waste management, linking relief, rehabilitation and development (LRRD), exit strategy, community self-reliance