WIT Press

Ningbo – A New Sustainable City For China


Free (open access)








3,427 kb

Paper DOI



WIT Press


R. Edmond


This paper describes the winning entry in the international competition for planning of the expansion of the city of Ningbo, China, for 350,000 people on a 4000ha site; and the design of its new Centre by HASSELL, with engineering consultant Hyder in late 2002. Shortlisted competition entrants included Obermayer from Germany, Kurokawa from Japan and the Beijing Planning Bureau. The winning scheme blends traditional Chinese practices in sustainable farming, aquaculture and soil and water management evolved over four millennia, with 21st Century technologies, to create a city which is sustainable to a degree greater than most contemporary cities. At the same time, the new city design embodies urban design qualities rarely found in contemporary Chinese cities, and compliments a fine city building tradition which spans 4000 years. ESD components are woven throughout the fabric of the new city. The largest parks and waterbodies accommodate storm and wastewater treatment and storage for recycling, and sustainable energy generation from wind and wastes; the smaller urban canals and waterways provide drainage and water distribution into wetlands for cleaning. The ESD agenda for the new Ningbo will reduce externally supplied water and energy requirements by half that of a conventional city, while providing a physical environment equivalent to the most advanced contemporary cities. The concept includes a comprehensive public transport system, which minimises incentives for growth of private vehicles and energy use, by providing an excellent standard of service. HASSELL is continuing its involvement with detail design of the project through the Shanghai and Hong Kong offices of the firm. 1 Introduction The Ningbo Urban Planning Bureau briefed competition entrants, to provide clear strategies to guide the future expansion of Ningbo beyond the boundaries of