Spatial Conditions For The Integration Of Combined Decentralised Energy Generation And Waste(water) Management In City Districts
Free (open access)
A. van Timmeren, P. A. de Graaf & G. de Vries
A topic of interest in sustainable urban planning and regeneration is the lack of integration of the so-called critical streams (water, energy, waste/wastewater). Most of the times concepts and systems which are developed or realised are not evaluated, compared or combined. Combinatorial effects of different decentralised technologies are not taken into consideration or investigated. The thesis of the research is that it is more appropriate to realise the pursued replacement of existing end-of-pipe technologies with an integrated approach and healthy, sustainable solutions at the intermediate scale of an urban district. In the case of decentralising alternative systems and infrastructures, concerning energy and sanitation in city districts and/or urban ensembles, conditions concerning the environmental impact, development and maintenance processes, spatial layout of collection, generation, treatment and interconnection of the different streams are effective. This paper focuses on the spatial and social conditions for the design, integration and implementation of sustainable solutions for these essential streams at the scale of an urban district, a cluster of houses and individual houses. Emphasis will be put on sanitation and the question of scale in relation to the integration and implementation of natural technologies and the way these technologies are present to the users. An improved visibility of solutions in the living environment of users will support their consciousness, and possibly commitment. The conditions for implementation are based on projects with innovative decentralised concepts for wastewater treatment and energy generation. Keywords: decentralisation, spatial conditions, energy and sanitation, integration.
decentralisation, spatial conditions, energy and sanitation, integration.