WIT Press


Design In Nature

Price

Free (open access)

Paper DOI

10.2495/ENV000201

Volume

41

Pages

10

Published

2000

Size

901 kb

Author(s)

C. Mattheck & I. Tesari

Abstract

The axiom of uniform stress is identified as a basic design rule for biological load carriers. Based on this condition and by use of the Finite Element Method (FEM) three computer programs have been developed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe to transfer these biological optimization mechanisms to mechanical engineering as well as to simulate biological growth. The Computer Aided Optimization design procedure (CAO-method) simulate the principle of adaptive growth which biological structures, like trees, use to minimise stress concentrations on the surface. The Soft Kill Option (SKO-method) copies the biological optimization mechanism of adaptive bone mineralization. And finally the Computer Aided Internal Optimization (CAIO-method) optimizes the performance of composite materials by aligning the fibre distribution with the force flow in order to avoid sh

Keywords