WIT Press


Environmental Impacts On Coastal Structures With A Case Evaluation Of Armor Stone Protection At Keweenaw Waterway, USA

Price

Free (open access)

Paper DOI

10.2495/AFM100361

Volume

69

Pages

10

Page Range

417 - 426

Published

2010

Size

2,918 kb

Author(s)

M. Zakikhani, D. W. Harrelson, J. G. Tom, J. A. Kissane, M. K. Allis & J. E. Kolber

Abstract

The evaluation of armor stone performance as a viable construction material is essential to increasing the longevity of maritime structures used to protect harbors, coastal areas and navigable waterways from damaging waves and other forces. The environmental parameters have led to the armor stones deteriorating faster than laboratory testing indicates. This paper provides an overview of the decomposition of the four rock types (limestone, granite, quartzite, and concrete) over the five field inspections. The meteorological variables were used to calculate the number of freeze-thaw events that occurred over the time period. The water wave height data were used to calculate stone deterioration from wave actions. The results from the field observations, together with the meteorological analysis, were used to help better parameterize the numerical model and assist in identifying problems in scalability from laboratory test samples to field samples. Keywords: hydrodynamic forces, response of structures, fluid dynamics, armor stone durability, great lakes, numerical modeling, laboratory testing. 1 Introduction Degradation of armor stone placed in coastal navigation areas in the United States Great Lakes has occurred as the result of a number of interacting and interrelated natural factors, such as seasonal weather changes, and repeated

Keywords

hydrodynamic forces, response of structures, fluid dynamics, armor stone durability, great lakes, numerical modeling, laboratory testing