Toward Cleaner Production Technologies In Surface Treatment Of Metals
Free (open access)
A. Nakonieczny & M. Kieszkowski
Cleaner Production technologies are an efficient tool to solve the environmental problems of the surface treatment of metals with a number of process-integrated and end-of-pipe techniques and to minimise emissions to the waters and to air, as well as to reduce the generation of hazardous wastes. This paper presents a short characteristic of the main environmental problems of surface treatment of metals with special consideration of hazardous wastes generated in the production of the corrosion-protective and decorative coatings. Key environmental issues are given. General principles of Cleaner Production technologies for surface treatment processes are discussed. Some practical methods of reducing water consumption and different techniques of the direct recovery of process solutions are shown. Practical examples of Cleaner Production methods implemented into Polish plating shops for zinc, nickel, chromium and tin plating are presented with a short description of the obtained efficiency of recovery and economy of water consumption. Keywords: surface treatment of metals, environmental protection, Cleaner Productions, IPPC Directive, rinsing technology, water consumption, emissions minimisation, recovery of process solutions. 1 Introduction Cleaner Production  technologies are among the main elements of the Best Available Techniques, which have to be implemented in plating shops to obtain the new integrated permit, according to European Directive 96/61/EC, so called IPPC Directive  (IPPC = Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control). The strategy of Cleaner Production and Best Available Techniques are both based on the application of low-waste and waste-free technologies. Also the
surface treatment of metals, environmental protection, Cleaner Productions, IPPC Directive, rinsing technology, water consumption, emissions minimisation, recovery of process solutions.