Carbon Dioxide Long-term Emissions And Its Storage Options In The Baltic Region
Free (open access)
I. Kavaliauskaite, M. Uibu, S. Teir, R. Kuusik, R. Zevenhoven & G. Denafas
Among other greenhouse gases mainly carbon dioxide (CO2) is responsible for the so-called enhanced greenhouse effect that causes global warming. The majority of carbon dioxide emissions are from combustion of fossil fuels and from industrial processes. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion could be reduced by capture and storage. One potential storage option is mineral carbonation. Magnesium and calcium oxide-based minerals as well as waste materials may be used for long-term storage of CO2 in the form of environmentally stable carbonates. Helsinki University of Technology has investigated the options for storing CO2 in the form of thermodynamically stable and environmentally inert magnesium carbonate by utilizing mineral carbonation. Large resources of minerals suitable for mineral carbonation appear to exist in Finland and at many other locations worldwide. A combination of thermodynamic and experimental investigations have been carried out at Tallinn University of Technology proving the concept of abatement of CO2 emissions in Estonia’s oil shale-based heat and power generation by wet carbonization of alkaline waste ashes. CO2 emissions from the Baltic power sector utilizing local fossil fuels are high. Although at present the Baltic States fulfil Kyoto protocol requirements, their carbon dioxide emissions are expected to grow in the near future. Upcoming markets for emission trading makes the research on storage options valuable as well. This encourages evaluation of the main CO2 emissions sources in the Baltic region. Also different storage options of CO2 in these countries are discussed. Keywords: carbon dioxide, mineral carbonation, storage, Baltic.
carbon dioxide, mineral carbonation, storage, Baltic.