ONSITE GRAYWATER RECLAMATION TOWARDS ALLEVIATING WATER SHORTAGES AT THE HOUSEHOLD LEVEL
Free (open access)
87 - 99
MAJDI ABOU NAJM, HISHAM HASAN, IBRAHIM ALAMEDDINE, MUTASEM EL-FADEL
Population growth and development, coupled with potential climate change impacts, are invariably associated with chronic water shortages particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. In this study, we evaluate the potential of using onsite graywater reclamation systems towards alleviating water shortages. For this purpose, we developed and administered a field questionnaire to assess the socioeconomic feasibility and public willingness towards the installation of such systems at the household level. Overall, 66% of the surveyed population approved of graywater reuse as compared to 48% who reported willingness to reuse wastewater. The results showed that acceptance of graywater reuse was a function of environmental awareness, household ownership, the age of the respondent, and access to alternative water sources. While graywater reuse can reduce water demand, its economic viability was found to be contingent on reforming the existing public water tariff structure. Under existing water use rates, the payback period for retrofitting a residence with a graywater reclamation system exceeded 30 years but went down to 9–12 years after accounting for water procurement from outside the network. The study concludes with a SWOT analysis and a management framework to integrate graywater reclamation as a source of water to supplement existing sources and help alleviate water shortages.
graywater, water reuse, urban water, water shortage, graywater reclamation