Analyzing Reverse Logistics In The Brazilian National Waste Management Policy (PNRS)
Free (open access)
649 - 659
M. M. Veiga
In the last 20 years, the Brazilian population has increased by 30%, while the amount of waste has risen by 90%. This demographic expansion associated with an increasing consumption of disposable products has switched the type (quality and quantity) of waste produced. Currently, many municipalities are facing difficulties in finding appropriate disposal sites. As a result, waste management has become a national priority. In 2010, after been on hold in the Nation’s Congress for decades, the National Waste Management Policy (PNRS) was approved through formal legislation (Law 12.305/10). The PNRS represented a major political and judicial improvement, but, still, represents a major economical and operational challenge. The strategies for improving waste management in Brazil should include instruments provided in the PNRS. Extended product responsibility, which includes all supply chain stakeholders, and reverse logistics are two main instruments incorporated in PNRS. A postconsumption reverse logistics program is the most common strategy to make operational the extended producer responsibility concept. Usually, a reverse logistics program deals with a specific range of products requiring by legal enforcement to be: recycled; reused; remanufactured; finally disposed of; treated; or incinerated. An efficient reverse logistics program should stimulate producers to internalize all social and environmental costs, from cradle to grave, in their decision making process. Thus, it is necessary to analyze the costs and benefits of PNRS instruments in order to balance benefits (reducing social and environmental damages) and costs (keeping reverse logistics chain operational). Legislation is the most common instrument to change market behavior in order to improve efficiency in returning numerous products. Even tough, reverse logistics has been successfully introduced in several national public policies; the instrument is still pending a further boost in the Brazilian regulatory system. This study discusses the strategies included in the PNRS.
waste management, reverse logistics, extended producer responsibility, Brazil