Modelling The Exposure Of Firefighters To Smoke Based On Measured Data
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A. I. Miranda, J. H. Amorim, V. Martins, P. Cascão, J. Valente, R. Ottmar, L. M. Ribeiro, D. X. Viegas & C. Borrego
This work addresses the exposure of firefighters to carbon monoxide (CO) contained in smoke. We have measured the time and space variation of firefighters’ exposure to CO concentration levels during a real scale fire experiment. A model for the estimation of personal exposure of firefighters to smoke was developed. Based on the combination of georeferenced location of a firefighter and on computed air quality levels the model calculates the individual exposure for a given period. Good agreement was found between estimated and measured averaged exposure during the fire experiments. The information on the individual exposure of firefighters can support the management of the crew positioning by anticipating potentially critical exposure levels and recommending safer routes for the attack. Keywords: forest firefighting, smoke emissions, individual exposure, safety, exposure measurement, exposure modelling. 1 Introduction Forest fires are a massive source of air pollutants to the atmosphere causing several environmental and human impacts from local to global scales. At the operational level, firefighters are confronted with extremely severe conditions, as steep terrain, falling debris, obstructions to movement, heavy equipment, high Modelling, Monitoring and Management of
forest firefighting, smoke emissions, individual exposure, safety, exposure measurement, exposure modelling.