WIT Press

Water And Biological Time Keeping


Free (open access)





Page Range

13 - 23




3,537 kb

Paper DOI



WIT Press


D. J. Morré & D. M. Morré


A homodimeric, growth-related and time-keeping hydroquinone oxidase (ENOX1) of the eukaryotic cell surface capable of oxidizing extracellular NADH exhibits properties of the ultradian driver of the biological 24 h circadian clock by exhibiting a complex 2 + 3 set of oscillations with a period length of 24 min. The oscillations require bound copper, are recapitulated by aqueous solutions of copper salts and appear to derive from 30 to 40 sec periodic variations in the ratios of ortho and para nuclear spins of the paired hydrogen atoms of the elongated octahedral structure of the ENOX2 protein bound copperII hexahydrates. Based on a heartbeat model of limit cycle oscillations, these oscillations correlate with generation of the 24 min periodicity as a form of carrier wave. A corollary of these observations is that the ortho-para oscillations must occur in a highly synchronized manner. Attendant oscillatory changes in redox potential offer an opportunity to monitor oscillations in synchronous populations of water molecules. The periodicity of the ENOX1/copper/water clock can be phased by brief 10 to 20 sec exposure to very low frequency electromagnetic fields. The synchronized populations of oscillating water molecules give rise to oscillatory electromagnetic fields that apparently are perceived by adjacent water molecules to create a collectively coherent synchronous system. Two asynchronous water samples placed adjacent to one another but separated by a thin non-metal barrier become fully synchronized in a matter of several min. A barrier of metal foil prevents the synchronization. The corollary of these observations is that contiguous water molecules function synchronously perhaps even over relatively long distances. Two samples of water from contiguous still or flowing bodies of water collected from different locations and analyzed simultaneously were synchronous in their oscillations in redox potential measured as changes in rates of NADH oxidation. Our findings suggest that water molecules communicate with each other via very low frequency electromagnetic fields.


coherent water, biological time keeping, low frequency electromagnetic fields, oscillations in ortho-para nuclear spins of paired hydrogen atoms of water, limit oscillators