Novel Developmental Immunotoxicology For Monitoring The Risk Assessment For Human Populations From Environmental Pollution: Alternative Methods In Vitro
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E. Codorean, M. Tanase, L. Albulescu, I. D. Popescu, S. Mihai, A. Murariu & C. Tanase
There is increasing interest in the development and application of biomarkers for the purpose of risk assessment among human populations exposed to adverse environmental agents. This paper reports a way of monitoring the effects of air pollution on human health by using epidemiological data and in vitro immunotoxicological parameters in lead (Pb) environmentally exposed subjects. Epidemiological and human health statistics collected over the past few years indicate a negative impact of pollution resulting in the increase of the incidence of major diseases: it increases the occurrence of pulmonary diseases, asthma attacks, cardiovascular disease, heart attacks, the development of cancer, and mortality by these major diseases. A pilot study on the target subjects living in the highly polluted air (exposed group H. n=86) indicated statistically significant increased values of blood lead level (BLL) compared to subjects living in low or no Pb polluted air (control group C, n=37). Serum and hematological parameter values, some of them significantly different between the two human groups, also confirm the negative effects of air pollution. In an ex vivo study, using peripheral whole blood cultures and multiplexed immunoassay xMAP technology, the cytokine profiles in the exposed and unexposed subjects were tested, Th1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-8, and the regulatory Th2 interleukins IL-4, IL-10 were sensitively modulated in environmental exposure. The cytokine profile detection using small samples (500µg/L) of human whole blood is reproducible and can be effectively used as an in vitro biomarker in human epidemiological studies on environmentally exposed people. Keywords: environmental, Pb exposure, health indicator, in vitro immunotoxicology, whole blood culture, cytokines, multiplexed immunoassay.
environmental, Pb exposure, health indicator, in vitro immunotoxicology, whole blood culture, cytokines, multiplexed immunoassay