Toxicity Assessment Of Fosthiazate, Metalaxyl-M And Imidacloprid And Their Interaction With Copper On Daphnia Magna
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A. Kungolos, V. Tsiridis, H. Nassopoulos, P. Samaras & N. Tsiropoulos
The toxic effects of three agrochemicals (fosthiazate, metalaxyl-M and imidacloprid) and copper were investigated in this study on the crustacean Daphnia magna. Copper was the most toxic tested compound with the lowest EC50 value, equal to 0.11 mg/L. Among the three agrochemicals, fosthiazate was the most toxic with an EC50 value equal to 0.32 mg/L, about two orders of magnitude lower than the EC50 of metalaxyl-M and imidachloprid. The interactive effects of binary mixtures of fosthiazate, metalaxyl-M or imidacloprid and copper were also investigated. The interactive effects between agrochemicals and copper were antagonistic in most cases, while additive effects were observed for binary mixtures of metalaxyl-M and copper for low concentration combinations. Keywords: pesticides, agrochemicals, bioassays, Daphnia magna, interactive effects.
pesticides, agrochemicals, bioassays, Daphnia magna, interactive effects.