WIT Press

Evaluating the performance of PV modules in buildings (BIPV/BAPV) and the soiling effect in the UAE desert setting


Free (open access)


Volume 5 (2020), Issue 4



Page Range

293 - 301

Paper DOI



WIT Press


Edwin Rodriguez-Ubinas, Mohamed Alantali, Sarah Alzarouni & Noura Alhammadi


This paper assesses the performance of photovoltaic (PV) technologies integrated into buildings in the desert climate and the factors that affect energy yield. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) and standard mono-crystalline silicon (c-Si) modules were installed facing south, in the three more common tilt angles used in the Building Applied Photovoltaics (BAPV) and Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) applications at the Dubai latitude (90°, 25°, and 0°). We monitored the energy production, the temperature of the PV modules, irradiance on each tilt angle, and the meteorological parameters for a full year. We then calculated the performance ratio for the six modules to evaluate the different factors, including temperature and soiling losses, following IEC 61724-1. The 25° modules, usual PV rooftop angle, had the highest and more consistent energy yield throughout the year. Conversely, the energy yield of the 90° modules, typical angle for facades, vertical shading devices, and guardrails, had the lowest yield and showed wide variations. This is expected as the 90° angle is more affected by the seasonal changes of the solar altitude. The soiling losses on these modules were lower than 1%. However, at 0°, the soiling loss was more evident, with an average reduction of 10.79%. The c-Si module at 25° generated the highest normalized energy yield of 402.02 kW h/m2, which was 23.5% more than that of CdTe module with the same tilt angle.


BAPV, BIPV, building integrated, CdTe, c-Si, photovoltaics, soiling, tilt angle.