WIT Press


HISTORICAL STRUCTURES AND CULTURES



Price

Free (open access)

Paper DOI

10.2495/D&N-V2-N3-277-290

Volume

Volume 2 (2007), Issue 3

Pages

13

Page Range

277 - 290

Author(s)

B. LEFTHERIS

Abstract

In the early periods of human habitation, nomadic people moved from place to place searching for the means to survive. As civilizations matured, they developed permanent habitations. Others, less advanced warriors, moved in, destroyed the communities and devastated everything in their path. This struggle for survival of the fi ttest continued for many millennia and especially during the period between the 3rd and 18th centuries in Europe. As an example we refer briefl y to the small island of Kythera, in the Ionian Sea. The Spartans, the Athenians, the Byzantines, the Venetians, the French, and the English occupied the island. They built structures that have survived to this day, but the local residents were disingenuous and considered them as aliens. Today there is no connection and no infl uence between the people on the island and the historical structures the foreigners left behind were abandoned. In Istanbul, on the other hand, no resident can avoid the protective wall structures built by the By

Keywords

competitive spirit and social evolution, Istanbul, Kythera, New York City, structures and cultures, structures and human values