WIT Press


Evaluation Of Armor Stone Performance And Deterioration

Price

Free (open access)

Paper DOI

10.2495/CENV080081

Volume

99

Pages

10

Page Range

89 - 98

Published

2008

Size

337 kb

Author(s)

D. W. Harrelson, M. Zakikhani, J. G. Tom, J. A. Kissane, M. K. Allis & J. E. Kolber

Abstract

Evaluating long-term performance and deterioration of armor stones are essential for maritime structures to protect harbors or navigable areas. Armor rocks are impacted by the natural elements such as seasonal weather, and repeated cycles of temperature (e.g., flowing water, wetting and drying, wave action, freeze and thaw, etc.). The rock’s behavior in the field may vary greatly from the controlled laboratory test results. The design process for the determination of optimal armor stone sizes is complex. Numerous investigators have studied the development of relationships for the minimum stable weight of a rubble-mound armor unit for given wave conditions. The main objective of this study has been to evaluate major factors involved in armor stone durability. To consider the combined effects of environmental stresses on armor stone, several testing procedures have been developed to evaluate the performance of stone subjected to both freezing and thawing and wetting and drying. Long-term performance or deterioration of armor stones have been quantitatively monitored and characterized by the changes in dimensions measured. A degradation numerical model has been developed that relates the laboratory test results to the armor stone mass reduction at the project site. The paper describes the latest results and developed tools for the armor stone evaluations. New approaches are introduced that may be used to evaluate the quality and durability with reference to breakage and integrity. Keywords: hydrodynamic forces, response of structures, fluid dynamics, armor stone durability, great lakes, numerical modeling, laboratory testing.

Keywords

hydrodynamic forces, response of structures, fluid dynamics, armor stone durability, great lakes, numerical modeling, laboratory testing.