Evaluation Of Beeswax Based Petroleum Bioremediation Products
Free (open access)
B Waldron & W M Griffin
Environmental management of port oil terminals D. G. Prokopiou and B. S. Tselentis Department of Maritime Studies, University of Piraeus, Greece, Abstract Bunkering is considered an environmentally high-risk process as international statistics on accidental pollution incidents indicate. The process is highly complicated, often involving several partners and many procedures and protocols. Procedures on board ship are well structured and well described in documentation provided by the manufacturers as well institutions such as IMO (MARPOL 73/78 clauses and Annexes), ISM auditors and others. It is also an area where much research has provided a good insight as to the factors involved, as well as many practical solutions to problems inherent to these processes. Another area where further research is needed, concerns oil refinery terminals, which, at least for Greece, play a major part in the transportation network of both crude as well as refined oil products. This paper presents the findings of research work, concerning the quality of oil terminal and bunkering procedures followed by refineries and oil terminals in Greece. The results are based on personal interviews with top ranking executives from the refineries, the Hellenic Coast Guard, Port and Local Authorities, Research Institutes and Health and Safety Bodies. All four major oil refineries were studied (three in the greater Attica area and one in Thessaloniki) as well as smaller oil terminals situated on many islands (mainly serving and operated by the National Electricity Board) and smaller oil terminals serving oil storage tanks mainly situated near or on the coastline. Data presented are discussed in relation to oil terminal environmental management procedures, highlighting practices and processes pertinent to the bunkering industry which is striving to establish safety and environmental protection issues as its top priorities.