WIT Press

Low-cost–high-accuracy Yard Equipment Tracking For Improved Container Monitoring And Assignment


Free (open access)





Page Range

423 - 434




1,141 kb

Paper DOI



WIT Press


A. Tsertou, A. Amditis, C. Daioglou, E. Latsa, E. Cauchi, I. Kanellopoulos, M. Kotras


The INTE-TRANSIT management system (ITMS) is a low-cost, high-accuracy client-server system, suitable for improving the port efficiency through an enhanced monitoring of containers and of yard equipment (trucks, straddle carriers, reach stackers). The main purpose of the proposed system is to obtain information such as container identification, vehicle/yard equipment ID and positioning data from communication endpoints, namely Differential GPS receivers, RFID readers as well as GEO-location servers. The objectives are the accurate management of the container storage process inside the terminal at a minimal cost and an always up-to-date inventory of the stored containers. These functionalities are combined with a user-friendly visualization tool for yard equipment positioning and jobs, which offers various mapping capabilities, a container search functionality and real-time remote access. To meet such requirements, ITMS consists of well-defined layers of operation; each operates independently, while also being able to communicate with its neighbouring layers, even under heavy workloads. On the other hand, the client terminal is a device which features a software-RTKLIB based positioning device, a controller to an RFID reader, integrated to a low-cost processor and a user interface for driver. The operation and functionalities of the proposed system have been showcased in a pilot demonstration which has been performed in the Piraeus Container Terminal, the fastest growing port terminal in Europe in 2013.


port terminal, DGPS, RFID, container monitoring, yard equipment