Toxic Greens: A Preliminary Study On Pesticide Usage On Golf Courses In Northern Ireland And Potential Risks To Golfers And The Environment
Free (open access)
173 - 182
C. A. Kearns & L. Prior
The pesticide hazards are well documented in their capacity to adversely affect public health and the environment. This paper presents information from a survey of pesticide usage practices on golf courses in Northern Ireland in 2008 and highlights the possible risks for golfers and for the environment from the use of the chemicals. The findings suggest that pesticides are being applied at high rates, on average 2.2kg/ha. The most heavily treated areas of courses are greens and tees, mainly treated with fungicides. The principal reasons for use are to control fusarium, leatherjackets, earthworm casts and daisies. The principal pesticide types used overall are herbicides, with MCPA the most frequently used active ingredient. The most regularly used pesticides leach readily in soil and have been found in groundwater samples in Northern Ireland. The majority of compounds reported used are listed as being toxic to wildlife with some also being very toxic to the aquatic environment. Many of the pesticides used have the potential to adversely affect human health. Early removal of spraying notification found in the study may increase the risk of golfers coming into direct contact with pesticides. Keywords: pesticide use, non-agricultural, amenity, golf courses, herbicide use, fungicide use, MCPA,2-4-D, Dicamba, pesticide risk.
pesticide use, non-agricultural, amenity, golf courses, herbicide use, fungicide use, MCPA,2-4-D, Dicamba, pesticide risk