The Fortifications Of Sydney, Australia: Adaptive Re-use And Issues Around Public Access
Free (open access)
161 - 174
P. R. Davies
This paper examines the fortifications around Sydney Harbour and Botany Bay in Sydney, Australia, particularly in regard to how they are to be managed into the future with the cessation of military use and their incorporation into Sydney Harbour National Park. The paper looks at use, conservation, maintenance, occupational health and safety, public access and risk management and strategic approaches to management and adaptive re-use. Keywords: conservation, adaptive re-use, occupational health and safety, strategic planning, significance, interpretation, maintenance. 1 Overview of history of Sydney fortifications Settled in 1788 by the British with minimal supplies and personnel, Sydney commenced protecting itself quickly with the first fortifications built overlooking Sydney Cove using guns from the supply ships. The batteries were earth formed and quite fragile and were located close to and around the settlement site. Protection was sought against the French (Napoleonic Wars) from Irish convicts transported after the 1798 rebellion, Spanish ships in the east, the American colonies and later fear of Russian invasion followed by Italian, German and Japanese invasions. 1800 saw the first more remote battery at Georges Head, cut out of the rock escarpment. This was the first permanent construction. Some further construction took place up to 1850 with more substantial structures replacing earlier batteries but despite much discussion and argument, the protection of Sydney did not greatly progress as the British Government, pre-occupied with wars and internal issues, lost interest in funding the protection of such a remote settlement.
conservation, adaptive re-use, occupational health and safety, strategic planning, significance, interpretation, maintenance.