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Monitoring Of Emerging Drinking Water Disinfection By-products For Microbial Inactivation


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S. Abbas, I. Hashmi, I. A. Qazi, M. A. Awan & H. Nasir


Monitoring of emerging drinking water disinfection by-products for microbial inactivation S. Abbas1, I. Hashmi1, I. A. Qazi1, M. A. Awan1 & H. Nasir2 1Institute of Environmental Sciences (IESE), School of Civil and Environmental Engineering (SCEE), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan 2School of Chemical and Material Engineering (SCME), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan Abstract Disinfection of water supplies is of paramount importance for the prevention of water borne diseases. Unfortunately, this leads to the formation of disinfection by-products. Currently, chlorine is the cheapest agent used to disinfect major drinking water supplies. The objective of the study was to report the occurrence of Total Trihalomethanes (TTHMs) in the distribution network system of the twin cities, Islamabad and Rawalpindi. At present, no significant data relating THMs have been reported in Pakistan. None of the DBPs are regulated in Pakistan and internationally it is required by law that the sum of four THMs does not exceed 80 μg/L with a frequency of sampling dependent on the population size. A simple and rapid method solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) was used for the extraction of TTHMs samples (Trichloromethane (Chloroform), Bromodichloromethane (BDCM), Dibromochloromethane (DBCM), Tribromomethane (bromoform). The water distribution network was monitored over a period of three months; samples were collected from thirty different sampling points. The concentration of the targeted compounds was analyzed using GC Gas Chromatography Shimadzu 2010 series coupled with electron capture detector. Samples were collected from different sampling sites including water filtration plants, overhead reservoir, underground storage tank and