WIT Press


Comparison Of The Emission Factors Measured In Real World Driving With Those Of COPERT 4

Price

Free (open access)

Paper DOI

10.2495/UT110551

Volume

116

Pages

10

Page Range

655 - 664

Published

2011

Size

3,664 kb

Author(s)

J. M. López, N. Flores, J. Lumbreras & R. Villimar

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to compare CO, HC, NOx, PM and greenhouse gas emissions for different urban buses regarding the Euro standard. Three buses were tested, two of them covering the range from Euro III to Euro IV emissions standards, and another one meeting the EEV standard. On-board emission measurements in urban buses were conducted in real world driving routes, operated by the Madrid Municipal Transport Company (EMT), in the city of Madrid. Therefore, the paper examines the real-world efficiency of the emission control technologies conducting tests under real-world driving cycles. It also shows a comparison in emissions and fuel consumption regarding the type of fuel used. The fuels analyzed are diesel and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). Finally, the test results obtained directly from the on-board measurements were compared with those results obtained from the application of the COPERT model and another model developed by INSIA to estimate the fuel consumption and pollutant emissions generated by the urban bus fleet of Madrid. Keywords: on road measurements, emission factors, urban buses. 1 Introduction On road emissions from urban traffic are one of the major environmental problems in large European capitals. In the city of Madrid, and according to the inventories published by the City Council (MCC [1]), road transport is responsible for over 50% of CO2 emissions, 75% of NOx emissions, 90% of CO emissions, and 30% of the emissions from Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). Emissions standards for vehicles have included significant emission reduction for many pollutants. Engines from Heavy Duty vehicles are also subject to strict

Keywords

on road measurements, emission factors, urban buses