Three Critical Factors And Their Influence On The Spread Of Microbiological Waterborne Diseases In Sub Saharan Countries (with Special Emphasis On Cholera)
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N. L. Musekene, M. Nepfumbada, P. Kempster, A. Kühn & H. van Niekerk
The magnitude of microbiological epidemic outbreaks has reached alarming proportions within recent years. The hardest hit by these diseases are sub Saharan African countries. Outbreaks of acute intestinal bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae have claimed a greater percentage of lives in sub Saharan countries than the rest of the world combined, particularly women and children. While technological advancements to detect these micro pathogenic organisms are at their peak, outbreaks continue to plunder humanity in different communities. Although the severity and the extent of consequences posed by such organisms are known and have been quantified more often, the fundamental background is that there are critical factors that exacerbate the spread of cholera amongst these countries. Poverty, the lack of a proper water supply and sanitation, the basic hygiene practice and absence of health systems need to be addressed in order to catalyze solutions to the growing problem. This paper focuses mainly on reviewing the status of cholera and the identification of homogenous attributes within the sub Saharan African countries, which are influencing the spread of such diseases. This article proposes a containment programme in order for sustainable development to take place in the region.