Integrated Pollution Prevention And Control: Choosing The Best Available Technique By Using A Cost-benefit Approach
Free (open access)
E. Brizio & G. Genon
European directive 96/61/CE concerning integrated pollution prevention and control was completely received in Italy at the beginning of 2005 by D.Lgs. 59/2005. The contents of the directive are now widely applied within the authorization procedure of many industrial activities in Italy, such as pulp and paper production, cement factories, foundries, chemical installations and so on. The hardest decision that competent authorities have to take within the procedure relates to the definition of the emission limit values; these limit values and the equivalent parameters and technical measures shall be based on the so-called \“best available techniques (B.A.T.)”. The directive 96/61/CE, art. 9, says that the emission limit values should be decided \“taking into account the technical characteristics of the installation concerned, its geographical location and the local environmental conditions. In all circumstances, the conditions of the permit shall contain provisions on the minimization of long-distance or transboundary pollution and ensure a high level of protection for the environment as a whole.” In the present paper we try to define the proper emission limit values for nitrogen oxides emitted by a cement factory in Italy by comparing the costs of the techniques applied to control emissions with the environmental benefit arising from the reduction of the emissions. The assessment of the external costs associated to the impact of pollutants deriving from cement production has been carried out by using the ExternE approach, a research program of the European Commission based on atmospheric dispersion modelling, exposure-response functions and monetary valuations. On the other hand, the costs of the abatement technologies are assessed on the basis of the investment and operating costs reported for the cement industry. Keywords: I.P.P.C., B.A.T., cost-benefit, ExternE, NOX, cement kiln, exposureresponse functions, nitrates, regional scale.
I.P.P.C., B.A.T., cost-benefit, ExternE, NOX, cement kiln, exposureresponse functions, nitrates, regional scale.