TRAFFIC RELATED METALS AS SOURCES OF URBAN ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION: A CASE STUDY OF KRAKÓW, POLAND
Free (open access)
81 - 89
The purpose of the research was to extend the current knowledge on traffic related metals in road dust which can be easily released to the environment and cause potential human health risks. Emissions from road traffic consists of exhaust emissions but also non-exhaust ones (wear and tear of vehicle parts, road surface as well as resuspension of dust) and can easily penetrate the air and river systems (runoff and air deposition after resuspension). Samples were taken in Krakow that is a very important transportation hub in southern Poland, characterized by very high traffic, congestion and is a significant tourist destination due to its cultural heritage. Results revealed high concentrations of all investigated metals in all road dust samples collected from traffic polluted sites and they were significantly more contaminated than samples collected from the reference sites. It can be assumed that the metals Cr, Zn, Pb and Cu can pose a significant hazard to the environment. The samples of fine fraction (<20 μm) of road dust were extremely contaminated with all of the investigated metals, in particular with Zn and Cu. Road dust could substantially pollute Vistula. Moreover, monitoring of road environment samples, in particular fine fraction, should be intensified because resuspended fraction easily enters the environment as well as human airways. Chemical analysis of all samples were supplemented with the fractionation study using BCR protocol (Binding Corporate Rules of the Commission of the European Communities). Fractionation studies revealed that mobility of examined metals decreases in that order: Zn>Pb>Cu>Cr. It should be noted, however, that metals even when not mobile in the environment can become a serious health concern when ingested or inhaled.
oxidation stress, metals, non-carcinogenic health risk assessment, traffic related elements (TREs), road dust, brake lining, tire, non-exhaust emission, road environment