WIT Press


BTEX Concentrations In The Atmosphere Of The Metropolitan Area Of Campinas (São Paulo, Brazil)

Price

Free (open access)

Paper DOI

10.2495/AIR110191

Volume

147

Pages

7

Page Range

211 - 217

Published

2011

Size

664 kb

Author(s)

A. C. Ueda & E. Tomaz

Abstract

Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) are hydrocarbons present in fossil fuels and, consequently, are also present in fuel combustion emissions, as toxic organic volatile compounds. Concentrations of these compounds found in the atmosphere of urban regions are indicative of vehicular pollution. In this work were studied BTEX atmospheric concentrations from five sites of metropolitan area of Campinas (São Paulo, Brazil), which have different characteristics: (1) suburban site; (2) downtown site; (3) urban site A; (4) urban site B; (5) industrial. The most abundant compound found in all sites was toluene (2.4 – 10 μg m-3). B/T ratio was used to study predominance of vehicular emissions and X/E indicates the distance from the site to the sources due to different photochemical reactivity of the compounds. It was possible to observe that sites away from the urban region and located in the predominant wind direction have lower concentration of BTEX as well as lower X/E ratios, indicating that pollution is due to transport emissions. Keywords: atmospheric pollution, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes), urban region, vehicular emissions, intensity of traffic, photochemical reaction, X/E ratio, B/T ratio, passive sampling, gas chromatography. 1 Introduction Atmospheric emissions of a variety of gaseous pollutants are of great concern, mainly in urban areas. Some compounds, such as BTEX, are precursors of ground level ozone and are also harmful to human health. Benzene is known for its carcinogenic effect [1] and xylenes’ oxidation products may be toxic or

Keywords

atmospheric pollution, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene,xylenes), urban region, vehicular emissions, intensity of traffic, photochemicalreaction, X/E ratio, B/T ratio, passive sampling, gas chromatography