SOX Emission Reduction In The Ceramic Industry: BAT And Beyond
Free (open access)
D. Huybrechts, E. Meynaerts & K. Vrancken
The ceramic industry in Flanders (Belgium) consists of ca. 30 plants producing mainly bricks, but also roof tiles, vitrified clay pipes and expanded clay aggregates. The clay minerals that are used as raw materials in these plants often contain high levels of sulphur. As a result, the ceramic industry is an important source of SOX emissions in Flanders. In 2004, the SOX emissions of the ceramic industry were estimated at 11,247 ton, or more than 10% of the total SOX emissions in Flanders. In order to meet the objectives of the EU NEC-Directive (2001/81/EC), the Flemish authorities aim at reducing the SOX emission of the ceramic industry to 5,460 ton by 2010. In this context, the Flemish authorities (Flemish Institute for Technological Research) asked VITO to determine the Best Available Techniques (BAT) for reducing SOX emissions in the ceramic industry. The selection of the BAT was based on a detailed evaluation of different emission reduction measures, such as addition of low sulphur and/or Ca-rich raw materials and different end-of-pipe techniques. Aspects that were considered in the evaluation of the measures included: technical applicability, achievable SOX emission levels, cross-media aspects and associated costs. SOX emission limit values were suggested based on the BAT selection and the associated SOX emission reductions were estimated. The analysis showed that application of BAT cannot guarantee the Flemish ceramic industry reaching the desired SOX emission level of 5,460 ton SOX in 2010. Therefore, the study also examined strategies that go beyond BAT, in order to achieve further emission reductions. Keywords: ceramic industry, SOX emissions, Best Available Techniques, IPPCDirective, NEC-Directive.
ceramic industry, SOX emissions, Best Available Techniques, IPPCDirective, NEC-Directive.