WIT Press

The impact of the cost of paid parking for private cars and public transport fare on the structure of urban mobility


Free (open access)


Volume 6 (2022), Issue 2



Page Range

197 - 207

Paper DOI



WIT Press


Alexey Fadyushin & Dmitrii Zakharov


The experience of European cities shows that with the introduction of free-fare public transport, the share of public transport trips increases insignificantly, while the number of trips by individual trans port, bicycle and on foot decreases. The most common way to reduce the number of trips by private cars is to introduce parking fees and regulate the tariff. The paper examines the impact of public transport fare paid parking fees on the transport demand structure. The structure of transport demand is determined using simulation modeling on a transport macro-model of a large city with a population of 800 thousand people that do not have off-street transport. The paper proposes a criterion for determining generalized costs of travel by different transport systems, which converts monetary costs into time fares. This made it possible to take into account the costs of movement by different types of transport (private and public transport, CarSharing, taxi, pedestrian and bicycle movements). With the introduction of paid parking fees up to 80 rubles per hour, the share of private transport trips reduced from 45.5% to 37.3%. With the introduction of free public transport, private transport trips share reduced to 39.9% with a significant increase in the costs of the municipal budget.


fare public transport, paid parking, public transport, transport demand, transport modelling, transport planning.