Planning and management challenges of tourism in natural protected areas in Baja California, Mexico
Free (open access)
Volume 12 (2017), Issue 3
517 - 527
R. ROJAS-CALDELAS, C. PEÑA-SALMÓN, A.L. QUINTANILLA-MONTOYA, A. ARIAS-VALLEJO & E. CORONA-ZAMBRANO
The continued exploitation of natural resources has enforced governments to establish regulations through different legal instruments to encourage its land use suitably for development and conservation by means of efficient planning and management. However, there is always the dilemma between economic interests and environmental and social ones when developing tourism in natural protected areas (NPAs). The purpose is to analyse the constraints that tourism faces in natural areas from three perspectives of interest groups. Firstly, from a federal economic development project “Nautical Stations” promoted by the government and tourism investors; secondly, from environmental institutions devoted to the protection of natural areas; and thirdly, from local residents in order to satisfy their social, economic and environmental needs. The methodology has been based on literature review to support the legal and regulatory framework on urban land use planning: NPAs and federal and state tourism development policies in Mexico and Baja California as well as technical reports and surveys developed by academic institutions assessing the welfare conditions of local residents before and after the application of environmental and tourism policies in the region. Lastly, results show that the nautical stations project had poor economic benefits with respect to expectations of regional economic growth. Thus, the nautical tourist model had not been successful due to environmental regulations imposed over the region.
ecological tourism, natural protected areas, rural tourism, rural development, sustainable development.