WIT Press

NEM schemes analysis based on installed grid-connected PV system for residential sector in Malaysia


Free (open access)


Volume 6 (2021), Issue 4



Page Range

382 - 394

Paper DOI



WIT Press


W. M. W. Muda, N. Anang & Aidy M. Muslim


An investigation has been conducted to analyse the performance of a grid-connected photovoltaic system (GCPV) based on the net energy metering (NEM) scheme. Several analyses of a similar system have been performed in the literature based on assumptions and simulations. However, the concept based on actual NEM data in Malaysia has not been fully considered. Hence, this study analyses the real performance of the GCPV system from the field monitoring of PV energy production, as well as import and export energy, collected at a residential house participating in NEM 2.0. From the collected data, the economic parameters were calculated and compared with an equivalent system before the NEM implementation, which is a grid-only system, and the NEM 1.0 and 3.0 schemes. The results show that for the considered load demand with an average monthly electricity bill of RM 500, the NEM 2.0 provides more benefits to consumers with the lowest payback period, net present cost, net saving and energy cost. Although NEM 3.0 produced the lowest net saving, which was RM 33,280 for 20 years of the project’s lifetime, it was still capable of reducing the electricity bill by 66% for the first year and 32% during self-consumption.


economic analysis, grid-connected PV system, Kuala Terengganu, net energy metering.