WIT Press

Experimental characterization of the dimensionless momentum length for submerged jet discharges of air-steam mixtures into stagnant water


Free (open access)


Volume 10 (2022), Issue 3



Page Range

195 - 210

Paper DOI



WIT Press


Y. Córdova, D. Blanco, C. Berna, J.L. Muñoz-Cobo, A. Escrivá & Y. Rivera


A very efficient method of condensing the steam in various industrial applications is the steam direct discharge into pools with subcooled water. This kind of condensation is known as Direct Contact Condensation (DCC), by providing high heat transfer and mass exchange capacity, the steam condenses quickly. In the past few decades, many experiments have been carried out on the submerged jets of non-condensable gases and pure steam in pools, supplying much information of interest, but efforts are still being made to obtain more information. In particular, the research of steam and non-condensable gas mixtures is of great interest to the chemical, energy, and nuclear industry. Consequently, this study investigates the discharge behavior of air-steam mixtures in a pool with subcooled water by direct visualization techniques using a high-speed camera. To know the behavior of the dimensionless momentum length, tests were carried out considering several initial discharge conditions such as nozzle diameter, percentage of mixture, and flow rates. After image acquisition, a series of complex processing, filtering, and post-processing procedures are applied using a subroutine in MATLAB. The momentum length of the jet was measured and found to be heavily influenced by the nozzle diameter, the jet velocity, and the mixture percentage. A correlation is obtained for the dimensionless momentum length of the horizontal jet that depends on the Froude and Mach numbers.


jets, air-steam mixture, direct contact condensation, dimensionless momentum length, digital image processing