Future Architecture, Ancient Wisdom: Adaptable Structures From Arctic Tradition
Free (open access)
Volume 5 (2017), Issue 4
583 - 592
In the Canadian high Arctic, subsistence hunters and fishers have learned, over generations, to construct shelters from available materials so they can survive inclement weather while harvesting food. Now, as accelerating climate change exacerbates the intensity and unpredictability of extreme weather, scientists and country food harvesters once again worry about becoming stranded. To envision how tradition-based dwellings might serve as modern short-term survival/emergency structures, we reconstructed four vernacular structures in largely- Indigenous Arctic communities and compared them with a Sami reconstruction from Arctic Scandinavia. Local knowledge-holders and students participated and proposed adaptations using modern materials and concepts. The five structures were qualitatively evaluated for replicability, adaptability to modern situations, on-going usefulness, thermal performance, and materials availability. Quantitative evaluations included speed of construction relative to length of use and approximate mass of structure per person. The structures that were most adaptable, replicable, and efficient were elliptic paraboloid-shaped dwellings: Inuvialuit willow-framed moss-and-skin-clad dwellings (Western Canadian Arctic), Inuinnaqtun snow houses (iglus and qarmaqs) (central Canadian high Arctic), and birch-framed turf-clad homes (Scandinavian Arctic). All shared the following characteristics: (1) catenary- or elliptic paraboloid-domed frame- work, (2) materials accessed from immediate vicinity of building site, (3) ease of construction by 1 or few people, (4) passive heating and insulated assemblies, (5) windbreaks incorporated into siting and design, (6) strong structure resistant to high winds and inclement weather, and (7) siting along routes where foods are harvested. These characteristics are now serving as design principles for tem- porary Arctic dwellings, demonstrating how recording, adapting, and sharing long-resident peoples’ architectural knowledge facilitates survival during extreme events associated with accelerated climate change
arctic indigenous knowledge, catenary arch, elliptic paraboloid, survival structures, vernacular architecture.