WIT Press

Human Life Saving Lifelines And Cost-effective Design Of An Exclusive Water Supply System For Fires Following Earthquakes


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WIT Press


S. Takada & Y. Kuwata


This paper investigates the effects of the lifeline malfunction on the loss of human lives during the 1995 Kobe earthquakes. Firstly those effects were reviewed for firefighting and hospital waters relating to water supply lifelines. Those lives which might have been saved if the water lifelines had worked shortly after the earthquake are analyzed based on the records of firefighting operation and have been counted as approximately 32 to 45 people. Next, an exclusive water supply system for firefighting introduced into fire fragile areas after the earthquakes is designed giving basic procedures based on costeffectiveness. Keywords: lifeline, firefighting. 1 Introduction Lifeline is categorized into four systems; energy supply system, water supply and treatment system, transportation system and information system, which are essential infra-structures for social activity, especially in urban livelihood. As a lesson from the 1995 Kobe earthquake, we learned that human lives might be lost as a result of the lifeline malfunctions in an emergency situation after earthquakes; for examples, traffic congestion of telecommunication system in the search and rescue (SAR) activity, no firefighting water from hydrant, traffic congestion in transporting earthquake injuries and the lifeline malfunction in emergency medical care centers. This paper investigates how the lifeline malfunction affected the loss of human lives during the 1995 Kobe earthquakes. Effects related to water supply lifelines were reviewed. Especially on the stage of fires following earthquake,


lifeline, firefighting.