Blast Induced Glass Hazards: A Comparison Of Design Approaches And Recent Research
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K. A. Marchand, E. J. Conrath, D. J. Stevens & S. B. Meyer
The greatest numbers of casualties resulting from terrorist bombings of buildings are generated by failed glass assemblages through shard laceration and glass lite induced blunt trauma. Current test methods for glass assemblies provide procedures for the validation of glazing assembly performance. Likewise, computer algorithms such as the Corps of Engineers’ HazL software and GSA’s WINGARD software predict structural/mechanical and post-break response remarkably well. Test methods and analytical predictions quantitatively evaluate glass performance but only qualitatively evaluate injury potential, however. Situations often arise where specific performance levels cannot be met, or threats to predict these levels are unknown and investment to achieve reduction in risk must be based on a quantitative assessment of risk. This paper describes the benefits of a combined performance evaluation and risk/injury quantification approach for the design of glass assemblies to mitigate the effects of blast loads. Keywords: blast modeling, blast-resistant, casualties, glass, glazing, hazard models, injuries, terrorism, counter-terrorism. 1 Introduction Blast loaded glass induced human injury data collected over the last few years has advanced the state-of-the-art in quantitative human injury prediction. This data has led to the development of models that suggest that established procedures, while having served the community well since their inception in the early 1990s, are generally conservative, but are limited in their ability to predict
blast modeling, blast-resistant, casualties, glass, glazing, hazard models, injuries, terrorism, counter-terrorism.