Protection Of Buildings From Chemical And Biological Threats
Free (open access)
M. Janus, G. Fenton & W. Blewett
Threats to buildings and infrastructure throughout the world are constantly shifting. As security professionals implement protective solutions to address our current threats, terrorists are devising the threats of the future. Within the past few years, chemical and biological (CB) threats have become a key consideration for many security professionals. The basic process utilized to develop a CB building protection solution is analogous to that used for physical, explosive, or other threats. This cyclical process includes threat and vulnerability assessment, protection assessment, design, fabrication and installation, test and evaluation, training, and operation and maintenance. System design is typically based upon one of four standard approaches – exclusion, containment, removal, or evasion. Given the possible expense and operational impact associated with employing a CB protective system, it is critical to conduct a thorough analysis of the potential options prior to expending significant funds on detailed design or equipment procurement. Various tools and methodologies are available to help conduct this pre-design evaluation. This paper presents a sample analysis of a standard building using a control volume model that helps display the potential effectiveness of various protective systems against both internal and external CB threats. The CB protection strategies examined include sheltering-in-place, building exhaust, low level filtration without pressurization, and high level filtration with pressurization. Results reveal that complex and costly solutions are not necessarily required. In addition, response time is the most critical factor when designing a system. Finally, the high level of uncertainty associated with this problem does not currently allow for the effective use of standardized or \“cookbook” solutions. Keywords: chemical, biological, building protection, infrastructure protection, collective protection, detection.
chemical, biological, building protection, infrastructure protection, collective protection, detection.