WIT Press

Four-dimensional Design And Analysis Of Modular Footbridges In Developing Countries


Free (open access)





Page Range

481 - 492




3690 kb

Paper DOI



WIT Press


L. Pyl & C. W. M. Sitters


A 4D design approach of a footbridge in steel is presented in this paper. Morphological indicators are applied to select the appropriate typology and to have a first idea about the dimensions. A Warren truss is thus chosen, meeting a broad range of criteria related to the construction and use of these footbridges in developing countries, among other the adaptability in length from 9 m to 24 m, the transformability and movable character of the bridge. The structural analysis, including the design of the joints, is performed according to the design rules in the Eurocodes resulting in a lightweight structure. Much effort is put into the detailing in order to create a modular system with a single component which can be handled by hand and one joint configuration. The assembly is explained. Keywords: footbridge in steel, adaptable structures, movable footbridges, lightweight structures, 4D design, design for sustainability, re-usable structures. 1 Introduction 1.1 Need for footbridges in developing countries: the case of Kenya In developing countries, in particular Kenya, there is a general need for small footbridges of 9m to 24m in length. These bridges are crossing small rivers ranging in width from 3m to 15m, which change course continuously. Therefore, the bridge including its foundation should be modular, movable, adaptable and transformable. This requires a very specific design approach as described below. One example is a river, locally known as "Moani" that separates Darajani area and Kambu area in the Eastern Province. During the dry season there are sections


footbridge in steel, adaptable structures, movable footbridges,lightweight structures, 4D design, design for sustainability, re-usable structures.