Toxic And Interactive Toxic Effects Of Agrochemical Substances And Copper On Vibrio Fischeri
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A. Kungolos, V. Tsiridis, P. Samaras & N. Tsiropoulos
The toxic and interactive toxic effects of two agrochemicals (fosthiazate and metalaxyl-M) and copper were investigated in this study on the photobacterium Vibrio fischeri. The toxicities of all tested compounds were generally comparable. The order of toxicity was: copper > fosthiazate > metalaxyl-M. The interactive effects of fosthiazate and metalaxyl-M mixtures were found to be additive for most of the concentration combinations tested. For the binary mixtures of fosthiazate and copper the interactive effect was antagonistic for all concentration combinations tested. Both agrochemicals showed a similar toxic response, while the toxicity of copper increased significantly by the increase of exposure time and a steep increase of copper toxicity was observed with a small increase of its concentration. Keywords: pesticides, agrochemicals, copper, bioassays, Vibrio fischeri, Microtox, interactive effects. 1 Introduction The toxicity of various solid and liquid substances to aquatic life forms has started to be the subject of considerable research in the last decade. Quantification of the different compounds based on standard chemical analysis
pesticides, agrochemicals, copper, bioassays, Vibrio fischeri, Microtox, interactive effects.