WIT Press


The Phi Code In Nature, Architecture And Engineering

Price

Free (open access)

Paper DOI

10.2495/DN040401

Volume

73

Pages

9

Published

2004

Size

1,002 kb

Author(s)

R. F. Borges

Abstract

This paper examines how the golden ratio, Φ (Phi), appears systematically coded (the phi code) in nature, architecture and engineering. The phi code helps to explain the growth patterns in nature, the aesthetics of design in architecture and the behavior of structural elements used in engineering. The phi code defines the morphogenesis (development of forms) in nature as well as the aesthetics of forms in architecture and its structural parts. Keywords: golden ratio, golden mean, golden section, divine proportion, geometric proportion, biomimetics, design and nature, architecture. 1 Introduction The golden ratio, phi, is coded symbolically manifesting itself in geometric patterns and forms and in mathematical expressions defining the behavior of natural and physical phenomena. As discussed in this paper, certain geometries d

Keywords