WIT Press

Nature And Design In Traditional Persian Architecture


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WIT Press


M. R. Pourjafar, A. A. Taghvaee & M. Salahi


Persian architecture has a deep history of designing buildings with respect to nature. This paper will deal with the classification and analysis of various types of traditional buildings in the different climatic zones of Iran. Finally, interesting criteria will be introduced to help with contemporary architecture design. These lessons from the past will not only improve energy conservation but will also result in pleasing architecture in harmony with nature. 1 Introduction Iran is one of the Asian countries. Its neighbors are Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, the Caspian Sea and Russia in the North; the Oman Sea and the Persian Gulf in the west. Iran has two famous ranges of mountains; the Alborz Mountain Stretches in the north and the Zagros in the west [l]. Climatically, Iran is classified as a dry region with an average rainfall of about 250 mm. The amount of rainfall in some of the northern parts of the country exceeds 1000 mm per year. In most of the central areas, especially in the deserts the figure is less than 50 mm. The north, west and some parts of the southern regions of the country have a moderate climate. In Khoozestan, one of the most famous civilizations, namely Mesopotamia, has emerged. Cities llke Shoosh and Babylon with a deep brilliant history were located in this region. Aryans came to Iran from the north some 10.000 years ago. They resided along the Mountains and formed different dynasties such as the Achaemenids (559-331 BC) the Parthians or Ashkanids (174B.c.- 224 AD) and the Sasanids (224-624 AD) [2].