WIT Press

Estimation Of Leakage From The Freshwater Network In Kuwait


Free (open access)





Page Range

129 - 138




271 kb

Paper DOI



WIT Press


A. Al-Khalid, M. Al-Senafy & E. Azrag


The objective of this paper is to assess the extent of fresh water leakage loss in Kuwait and to recommend to the Ministry of Electricity and Water (MEW) the steps to be taken for the minimization of this loss. A broad conclusion was made from the study that water loss through real leakage is not a significant problem in the Kuwait water distribution system; however, more improvements can be made to reduce the non-revenue water loss. A preliminary system water balance has been carried out using available reported data. This water balance indicated that the real loss in the system is about 5%. An attempt was carried out to validate leakage levels by investigating night flows and water balances on six DMAs namely, Al-Sha’ab, Al-Rihab, Al-Qadsiya, Al-Riggae, Al-Shuhada and Al- Hadiya. Based on the national average of real losses normalized by the ratio of the local mass balance discrepancy to the national average, the estimates of real loss (leakage) ranged from 1–12% where as the non revenue water could reach close to half of the fresh water input. More detailed field leakage detection surveys and pressure drop tests were carried out on each DMA. The field leakage detection survey indicated that there was little detectable real leakage except for Al-Qadsiya DMA. Almost all the leakages found were at the consumer connection. During the investigation a number of issues were found related to customer metering such as poor installation details, pumps on the supply pipe affecting meter readings, and damaged meters. The combined effect of these issues means that there could be significant meter under registration in the range of 10–50%. Recommendations are made to reduce the amount of non-revenuewater (including real losses), to improve the distribution network in general. The most important recommendation is to investigate and improve the materials and the practice of installing consumers’ connections as it is the main source of real


management, water loss, water balance, night flows