Effects Of Age, Sex, And Environmental Factors Using Samples Of Hair From Residents Living In The Vicinity Of The Cho Dien Lead/zinc Mine (Vietnam)
Free (open access)
597 - 609
N. T. T. Hien, M. Yoneda, Y. Matsui, S. Fujii & H. T. Hai
Various characteristics such as age, sex, and polluted environment have been considered as the factors affecting trace element contamination of hair. However, those issues are still controversial. In order to clarify and confirm the effects of these factors, hair samples of residents living in and around Cho Dien lead/zinc mine were used in a preliminary assessment. The collected samples included 109 hair specimens in which 42 males and 67 females were identified and analyzed considering 4 metals (Ca, Cd, Pb, Zn). The results observed for males and females showed that a concentration of Ca was the highest level compared to those of other metals, followed by that of Zn. The average levels of Cd and Pb of the male group were observed to be significantly higher than those of the female group whereas these values of Ca and Zn were lower. Statistical analysis showed a strong positive correlation between Cd and Pb for the whole population (r=0.679) as well as for the male hair (r=0.696) and the female hair (r=0.590). Higher concentrations of Cd and Pb were recorded in individuals living near the mine and more polluted areas in comparison with others, indicating increased systemic absorption of cadmium and lead. The most likely exposure pathways may be due to soil and water contamination, however, further investigations in this region should be performed. Keywords: lead/zinc mine, human exposure, environmental factors, hair analysis, cadmium and lead relationship.
lead/zinc mine, human exposure, environmental factors, hair analysis, cadmium and lead relationship.