Assessment Of PM10, CO And Noise Levels At The Central Area Of Makkah During Hajj Season 1429H (2008)
Free (open access)
541 - 550
A. R. Seroji
The present investigation aims to study temporal and spatial variation in the concentrations of PM10, CO and noise levels at the central area (322 m altitude, 21o .25 N, 39o.52 E) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia, during hajj season in 1429H (2008). Measurements of PM10, CO and noise levels were conducted using the High Volume Sampler of PM10, CO gas monitor and the Sound level Meter of model CR812B, respectively. The daily averaged measured PM10 concentrations at the central area were high and ranged between 85 and 200 μg/m3. Despite such PM10 concentrations are lower than the recorded one (250 μg/m3) by previous studies and are within the permissible limits by GERRI (340 μg/m3) but they were still exceeding the recommended limits of PM10 (20 μg/m3) by WHO. However, the averaged measured concentrations of CO were less than 20 mg/m3/hr except Tunnel (1) that reached 97 mg/m3/hr. The measured LAeq at the central area sites varied between 71 and 98 dB exceeding the recommended value of 70 dB by WHO. This study also discussed the temporal variation of all these pollutants during hajj season and its expected sources in the central area and its health effects on pilgrims. The solutions were suggested to improve the air quality. Most important suggestion is adopting a new public transportation system at this central area in Makkah such as monorail, trams or train networks that would extremely reduce air pollutant concentrations and noise levels. A comprehensive program is required for the safety environmental management. Keywords: PM10, CO, noise levels, air pollution, central area, Hajj, Makkah.
PM10, CO, noise levels, air pollution, central area, Hajj, Makkah.