WIT Press


Towards Sustainable Water Resources For Arid Land Cities: The Case Of Riyadh

Price

Free (open access)

Paper DOI

10.2495/WRM110081

Volume

145

Pages

12

Page Range

87 - 98

Published

2011

Size

747 kb

Author(s)

A. A. Alhawas

Abstract

Owing to the aridity prevailing in the region, Riyadh is very poor in renewable water resources. Internal renewable water resources are estimated at 1577 m3 yr-1 per inhabitant. The total withdrawal of water is greater than the total actual renewable water resources. This applies a great deal of stress on planning water resources and water use for development sustainability. Fortunately for the city of Riyadh, it is located on the Arabian shield where ground water resources have always been a major source of city potable and irrigation waters. Deep ground water sources supply the city with more than 40% of its daily water consumption. But the recharge rate is way below the withdraw rate, annual PPT average 100 mm. However, the fast growth of the city is imposing serious challenges on water supply planning. The ground water sources by the city are exhausted, and their 40% share in city water supply is not tenable. The city planners are assuming an increasing share of desalinated seawater for the city supply. Expected city average daily consumption of water in 2014 is 2768639.015 m3, of which the current ground water supply is 20%. The rest is to be supplied from other sources. It is concluded that all other potential sources should be fully utilized in order to reduce pressure on ground and desalinated water sources, including cloud seeding, rain harvesting and water reuse. It is also recommended that huge amounts of water can be saved by maintaining the city distribution net, and by other means like raising public awareness. Keywords: ground water, desalination, recycling, formations, fossil water, recharge, outcrop, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, urbanization. 1 Introduction Potable water availability is becoming a problem in many places on the planet. Water security is an important component of human living security, and their

Keywords

ground water, desalination, recycling, formations, fossil water, recharge, outcrop, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, urbanization