WIT Press

Risk Assessment Of Atmospheric Toxic Pollutants Over Cairo, Egypt


Free (open access)

Paper DOI






Page Range

353 - 363




1,087 kb


M. A. Hassanien


The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution of toxic pollutants, primarily those that pose great risk for human health (Co, Cr, Cd, Pb, Mn, V, As, Sb, Ni, and Ti), in atmospheric air samples collected from various sites in Cairo, Egypt; to assess human health risk estimates derived from the metal inhalation of urban inhabitants; and to explore the relationship between potential exposure levels and risk estimates. Methods based on the integration of environmental modeling and Geographical Information System (GIS) were used in the present study. Samples of airborne particulate matter were collected during the summer season 2005 from seven sampling sites in Cairo, Egypt. The atmospheric mean concentrations (µg/m3) of the measured metals in the atmosphere of Cairo were Co (0.0196), Cr (0.0113), Cd (0.0017), Pb (0.9485, Mn (0.0975), V (0.0310), As (0.0063), Sb (0.0165), Ni (0.0133), and Ti (0.3483). Cancer risks, as well as noncancer effects, due to inhalation exposure were assessed for 10 toxic metals. Individually, in relation to carcinogenic risks, As, Cr, and Cd inhalation might potentially cause an increase of the cases of cancer more than 1E-6 for As and Cr in all investigated sites and Cairo as well. The current results suggest that, although in general terms the concentration of metals is not relatively high in summer for the area, attention should be paid to As, Cr, and Cd as carcinogenic materials. Keywords: atmospheric air, Cairo, toxic metals, hazards, risk levels.


atmospheric air, Cairo, toxic metals, hazards, risk levels