Response Of Lichens To Heavy Metal And SO2 Pollution In Poland – An Overview
Free (open access)
561 - 570
K. Sawicka-Kapusta, M. Zakrzewska, G. Bydłoń & A. Sowińska
Epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L) Nyl. from the natural environment and transplanted was used for ten years (1997–2006) to estimate air contamination in Poland. Lichens from natural environment were collected from the Base Station of the Integrated Nature Monitoring System and from Polish National Parks. Transplantation was carried out in Cracow city, small forest sites near Cracow conurbation and industrial areas in the Małopolska district. Hypogymnia physodes showed the changes in air pollution in Poland but also confirmed the presence of some areas still being contaminated. They are located near heavy industry, near large cities like Cracow and also in some areas located far from industrial sources. Keywords: Poland, biomonitoring, air pollution, heavy metals, sulphur dioxide, lichens, Hypogymnia physodes. 1 Introduction Biological monitoring can be defined as the measurement of the response of living organisms to changes in their environment [1, 2]. It is a very useful and sensitive method for estimating air and environment quality. This method has been successfully used for more than fifty years [3–5]. Lichens are very good bioindicators of air pollution as they accumulate contaminants as the function of their concentration in the air. This accumulation undergoes the passive way [6, 7]. Another advantage of lichens as an excellent bioindicator is that many species have a wide geographical distribution and are very common. Therefore they can be used at a local, regional and national scale [5, 8, 9]. Air pollution originates mainly from industrial manufacturing and energy production, coal and oil
Poland, biomonitoring, air pollution, heavy metals, sulphur dioxide, lichens, Hypogymnia physodes.