Some Reflections On The Modelling Of Biogenic Emissions Of Monoterpenes In The Boreal Zone
Free (open access)
105 - 114
K. M. Granström
Trees emit volatile organic compounds, mostly monoterpenes and isoprene. These biogenic substances are the dominant volatile organic compounds in air in forested regions. They contribute to the formation of thopospheric ozone and other photochemical oxidants if mixed with polluted air from urban areas. Increased ozone levels hamper photosynthesis and thus have a negative impact on the growth of forests and crops. Terpene flux estimations are needed for models of atmospheric chemistry and for carbon budgets. Several models of natural terpene emission have been constructed, both in a global scale and for various regions. Ideally, a model of natural terpene emissions should show the terpene flux at different times of day and year, at different weather conditions, and for different ecosystems. Its resolution should be sufficient to show short emission peaks. It should also be able to accommodate extreme events like pest outbreaks and serious storms, especially since those are expected to become more common due to global warming. An examination of the scientific literature on monoterpene content in trees and emission fluxes for the dominant boreal forest tree species shows that models aiming to predict terpene fluxes from natural sources over time should include the factors temperature and light intensity, and possibly also take into account the seasonal variation of terpene levels in trees. As wood tissue damage increases emissions, a base level of herbivory and insect predation should be estimated and included. When identification of high concentrations is important, models should have sufficient resolution to capture the emission peaks found, for example, at bud break. The temperature dependence is shown to vary sufficiently between different tree species to motivate using specific values for the ecosystems examined. Keywords: biogenic, volatile, terpene, model, forest, boreal, spruce, pine, birch.
biogenic, volatile, terpene, model, forest, boreal, spruce, pine, birch.