Groundwater History And Trends In Kuwait
Free (open access)
153 - 164
E. H. AlAli
In Kuwait, one of the GCC countries, natural resources of fresh water are very limited. Kuwait is situated in an arid coastal region characterized by high temperatures, low humidity, sparse precipitation rates, and high evaporation and evapotranspiration rates with no rivers or lakes. Therefore, Kuwait has always relied on other sources to secure freshwater to meet its growing demands. Groundwater quality deterioration in Kuwait is caused by two factors: one factor is the water quality in groundwater fields, where water is extracted for urban use could be affected by lateral flow of saline water. The other factor is that declining groundwater levels would accelerate the process of water quality deterioration. An alternative solution was suggested by the author to overcome the groundwater quality and quantity. A conceptual design system was introduced, consisting primarily of utilizing brackish groundwater in conjunction with treated wastewater augmentation and a reverse osmosis unit. The economical feasibility of the general conception design system was analyzed. Keywords: Kuwait, groundwater, water level, water quality deterioration, conceptual model. 1 Introduction Kuwait is an arid country with very few natural water resources (Figure 1). The only water resource in Kuwait with limited natural replenishment is groundwater. Except for some isolated fresh water lenses in northern Kuwait at Raudhatain and Umm Al-Aish, the rest of the usable groundwater is mostly saline, with some brackish zones existing in the southwestern regions. Most of the brackish groundwater fields are located in the center and western regions of Kuwait. Abdally in the north and Wafra in the south are farming areas that depend on groundwater for irrigation. The remaining groundwater in Kuwait is highly saline with a maximum of total dissolved solids (TDS) of about 200,000
Kuwait, groundwater, water level, water quality deterioration, conceptual model.