Beach Users’ Aesthetic And Economic Evaluation Of A \“minor Change” To The Hard Engineering Coastal Defences At Wiseman’s Bridge, Pembrokeshire, Wales
Free (open access)
115 - 125
F. B. Blakemore, M. Burrell & S. D. R. Jones
This study evaluated the visual impact of the new hard engineering coastal defences at Wiseman’s Bridge, Pembrokeshire, Wales. This beach had existing hard coastal defences, road, car park and dwellings, which may have lead planners’ to believe that the change would not impact upon beach users’ enjoyment. However, a change in coastal scenery was expressed by 79% of those surveyed, using the perceptual approach, whilst the beach classification was unaffected using two checklist models. The beach is primarily utilised by families for children’s play and to enjoy the surroundings. Nearly half of the beach users had concerns with regard to the new coastal defences and were willing to pay (£1.62 per visit) to fund alternative defence methods for the remaining shoreline. A fifth of respondents were willing to pay (£1.91 per visit) for the new defences to be removed and replaced with a more natural method of sea defence. The preferred payment mode in both cases was a car parking fee. Thus, this study has found that even apparently minor changes in scenery impact markedly upon the recreational enjoyment and valuation of the beach experience. Keywords: aesthetics, economic evaluation, willingness to pay, beach users, coastal defences. 1 Introduction Due to current predictions of global sea-level rise and growing populations within the coastal zone, coastal defence is an issue that needs to be addressed at
aesthetics, economic evaluation, willingness to pay, beach users, coastal defences.