Income Generation From Tourism In National Parks: European Experience
Free (open access)
Y. Krozer, M. Lordkipanidze, T. Bijma & F. van den Akker
National Parks are founded to protect natural and cultural heritage. An important question is how to balance this main goal with attraction of tourism to the area. An answer is based on a demonstration project called MOPARK used in eight National Parks in six countries of Northern Europe. This paper presents monitoring results of MOPARK. The project generated several dozen sustainable innovations in the sense of cleaner new technologies and activities with social contributions in leisure, education, research, sport, health and so on. It is found that small and medium size enterprises in tourism are cooperative and that tourists appreciate new activities in the National Parks although it is too early to estimate use of the activities. The results of MOPARK are that authorities in the park can undertake entrepreneurial activities to generate income without undermining the prime goal capacities for the social entrepreneurship. Keywords: National Parks, tourism, mobility, sustainable vehicles, income generation, environmentally friendly technologies. 1 Introduction National Parks are developed to preserve natural and cultural qualities. But private mobility endangers these natural qualities. Almost 40% of all private mobility is for recreational purposes and the demand for recreation is still increasing. Especially in National Parks the negative effects of mobility are evident. However, restricting all activities makes National Parks difficult to maintain and does not generate social activities. An emerging view is that good management of mobility in national parks can provide a basis for natural qualities, social activities and economic progress.
National Parks, tourism, mobility, sustainable vehicles, income generation, environmentally friendly technologies.