WIT Press

Planning transit-oriented development (TOD): a systematic literature review of measuring the transit-oriented development levels


Free (open access)


Volume 6 (2022), Issue 4



Page Range

378 - 398

Paper DOI



WIT Press


Sara M. Ibrahim, Hany M. Ayad & Dina M. Saadallah


The recent decades have witnessed a growing trend towards transit-oriented development (TOD) to achieve sustainable development through maintaining the integration between land use and transport systems. It is believed that measuring the TOD level ‘TOD-ness’ is important for TOD planning. However, it has been found that the spatial studies and quantitative methods that comprehensively measure TOD-ness are still limited. Furthermore, some methods do not have standard frameworks, and they vary according to the research context and orientation. Accordingly, the major focus of this paper is related to the multi-criteria decision making (MCDM), quantitative measuring methods that prioritize potential areas for intervention. Based on a systematic review, this paper aims to evaluate the existing studies published between 2000 and 2020 in relation to TOD-ness measurement and its operationalization. This systematic review is an attempt to present the dominant methodologies used and analyse their pros and cons. Accordingly, the paper introduces a theoretical review of the TOD concept, its evolution and methods employed from the previous studies. Then, an analytical review is conducted for the eligible records, that are extracted from eight databases according to certain criteria. Finally, it is expected that the outcomes of the research will provide insight for further studies, in addition to presenting the best-adopted methods and assisting in developing MCDM models that measure TOD-ness quantitively.


multi-criteria decision making (MCDM), TOD planning, TOD level, TOD measurement, transit-oriented development (TOD).